Neurosonological Findings Related to Non-Motor Features of Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review
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AutorToro Pérez, Cristina del; Amaya Pascasio, Laura; Arjona Padillo, Antonio; Olivares Romero, Jesús; Mejías Olmedo, María Victoria; [et al.]
Non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD), including neuropsychiatric or dysautonomic complaints, fatigue, or pain, are frequent and have a high impact on the patient’s quality of life. They are often poorly recognized and inadequately treated. In the recent years, the growing awareness of NMS has favored the development of techniques that complement the clinician’s diagnosis. This review provides an overview of the most important ultrasonographic findings related to the presence of various NMS. Literature research was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science from inception until January 2021, retrieving 23 prospective observational studies evaluating transcranial and cervical ultrasound in depression, dementia, dysautonomic symptoms, psychosis, and restless leg syndrome. Overall, the eligible articles showed good or fair quality according to the QUADAS-2 assessment. Brainstem raphe hypoechogenicity was related to the presence of depression in PD and also in depressed...
restless legs syndrome