Alternative Proposals to Measure Consumer Ethnocentric Behavior: A Narrative Literature Review
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CETSCALE (Consumer Ethnocentrism Tendencies Scale), the scale developed by Shimp and Sharma in 1987 to study consumer ethnocentric behavior, has received preferential use in the literature, with numerous replications carried out in countries on all continents. Although it was proposed as a 17-item scale along with a smaller version of only ten items, studies that use only a part of these have been become increasingly common. To some extent, this practice responds to the multidimensional behavior of CETSCALE, as can be widely confirmed. It is for this reason that a growing consensus is in favor of reviewing the scale as a tool to measure ethnocentrism, made evident by the appearance of new alternative scales. CEESCALE and CES are two of the most recent proposals, which were developed with a similar number of items but grouped into a number of clearly defined dimensions, providing more robust results.