Effect of Temperature on Life History and Parasitization Behavior of Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae)
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Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is currently used as biological control agent for several lepidopteran pests. Knowledge of thermal requirements is essential to optimize its rearing procedures and inundative releases. The biological characteristics and two-sex life table parameters of T. achaeae were determined at five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) using Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. T. achaeae was able to develop and survive from 15 °C to 30 °C, but not at 35 °C. Temperature significantly affected the preadult development time and adult longevity, decreasing when temperature increased from 15 °C to 30 °C. Temperature significantly altered the sex ratio, being female biased between 15 °C and 25 °C. Age-stage, two-sex life table analysis indicated that net reproductive rate (R0) was highest at 20 °C. Both the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) increased with increasin...
two-sex life table