An Updated Focus on Quadruplex Structures as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Cancer
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Author/sSanchez Martin, Victoria; Lopez Pujante, Carmen; Soriano Rodriguez, Miguel; Garcia Salcedo, Jose A.
Non-canonical, four-stranded nucleic acids secondary structures are present within regulatory regions in the human genome and transcriptome. To date, these quadruplex structures include both DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes, formed in guanine-rich sequences, and i-Motifs, found in cytosine-rich sequences, as their counterparts. Quadruplexes have been extensively associated with cancer, playing an important role in telomere maintenance and control of genetic expression of several oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Therefore, quadruplex structures are considered attractive molecular targets for cancer therapeutics with novel mechanisms of action. In this review, we provide a general overview about recent research on the implications of quadruplex structures in cancer, firstly gathering together DNA G-quadruplexes, RNA G-quadruplexes as well as DNA i-Motifs.