Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Measure Perceived External and Internal Faces of Controlling Teaching among Students in Physical Education
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There are no validated instruments to date that have examined the students’ perceptions of externally and internally controlling teaching practices in physical education (PE). Grounded in self-determination theory, the objective of this research was to provide validity and reliability evidence of the Controlling Teaching Scale for Physical Education (CTS-PE) to assess the external and internal faces of controlling teaching in PE through two sequential studies. In Study 1 (n = 241 students), an exploratory factor analysis revealed an eight-item two-factor solution (four items per factor). In Study 2 (n = 968 students), a confirmatory factor analysis supported the eight-item two-factor correlated model (i.e., externally and internally controlling teaching) that was invariant across gender. Reliability coefficients indicated an acceptable level of reliability for the two factors of the CTS-PE. A structural equation modelling showed that externally and internally controlling teaching behav...
basic psychological needs